Lithium-ion batteries - raw material to finished product

How can you ensure your entire value chain is free from human rights abuses? 

Visualising the value chain of lithium-ion batteries hinges on mapping and analysing the supply of cobalt, with its notoriously risky supply chain. Attention often focuses on human rights abuses associated with mine operations in DR Congo, but by combining ESG data on both mine operations in DRC and wider supply chain operations, we see that violations also exist further up the chain. And focusing on a single country or supply chain tier leaves your operations exposed to risk and disruptions.